Recommended Surveillance and Control Plan for West Nile Virus


The NEO Sierra Club is sync with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, West Nile Virus (WNV) Response Plan (2001) and the Shaker Heights, Ohio, WNV Response Plan (2001).

The Cambridge surveillance and control plan follows:
(Prepared by the Cambridge Public Health Department, 2001)

The City of Cambridge, MA, will carry out a comprehensive plan to limit the risk of WNV transmission by emphasizing prevention measures such as habitat control, larvicide applications in storm drains, public education, and personal protection from bites. The ultimate goals of the WNV Response Plan are to prevent any serious human illness related to this virus and to make consideration of unpopular and riskier control measures (e.g. citywide ground spraying of pesticides) unnecessary.

Surveillance/ Control, Stages 1 – V:

Stage I Risk
Virus activity last year

Stage II Risk
Identification of WNV in one or few dead birds/ Identification of WNV in one bird-biting mosquito batch

Stage III Risk
Identification of WNV in single positive batch of mammal-biting mosquitoes/ Identification of WNV in multiple batches of any variety of mosquito/ Increasing density of dead birds

Stage IV Risk
Laboratory confirmation of a human infection (encephalitis or death) and presumed to be locally acquired OR laboratory confirmation of a human WNV infection in an adjacent community and presumed to be locally acquired WITH the confirmed presence of mammal-biting mosquitoes AND/OR the presence of infected birds AND/OR the presence of infected mosquito batch(es)

Stage V Risk
Multiple human cases if WNV infection (encephalitis or death)

Shaker Hts, Ohio


The Shaker Heights WNV Task Force, which is comprised of doctors, doctorates, and residents, worked over the winter, 2001, analyzing data and devised a plan for Shaker Heights. The task force recognized that pesticide spraying has limited effectiveness AND that the incidence of a human acquiring a serious case of WNV is extremely rare. Shaker Heights has encouraged personal responsibility to rid of free standing water and the use of larvaciding. As a result of the research done by the task force, Shaker Heights will consider adulticide spraying only if an individual tests positive for the virus.

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